WEBPAGE UPDATED Tuesday March 27, 2018
The Oxygen Edge™ is an adjustable oxygen injection system that insures the right amount of dissolved oxygen needed for overcrowded livewells and bait tanks every summer… not to much O2-not to little O2. You dial in the correct, safe dose of pure oxygen, no guessing, no suffocation and no wasted oxygen. The right dose of pure 100% compressed welding oxygen guarantees continuous 100% DO Saturation in overcrowded livewells in harsh summer conditions. You adjust/control the right dose of oxygen, more fish and bait need more pure oxygen.
The Oxygen Edge™ is the original aquatic “life support system” built for sport fishermen that operates quietly in closed livewells and bait tanks for all live transports – always dependable, no heat, no noise, no aggravation… a turn-on-and-forget fishing oxygen system that works all day every day.
Livewell aerators, spray bars, air pumps and water pumps aerate livewell and bait tank water with room air, require electricity produce heat, make plenty of noise all day and often have serious DO limitations – they always deliver AIR which is Always 80% Nitrogen and only 20% Oxygen. Oxygen is not air. Water pumps just pump water, that’s all there is.
Before you buy a fishing oxygen life support system, know and understand the essential characteristics of an “oxygen life support system.” Specifically the technical characteristics of different brands and types fishing oxygen system… eliminated disappointment, stress and aggravation when performance and dependability is less than your expectations in overcrowded summer livewell conditions. Know what will work or will not work for your specific fishing requirements and conditions.
Consider “Why Do Some Oxygen Systems Fail?” http://oxyedge-chum.com/why-some-oxygen-systems-fail/
*Fishing Oxygen Systems fail when they DO NOT and/or WILL NOT deliver the minimal safe dose of pure 100% oxygen continuously every summer for long periods of time whether your livewell is seriously overstocked or stocked correctly.
FACT: Fishing Oxygen Systems Are Not Created Equally
FACT: There are many types, brands, models of fishing oxygen systems – more bait or more fish in the livewell always requires more oxygen, therefore, the dose of oxygen must be adjustable. More air or more flowing water does not mean more oxygen.
“How Much Oxygen” is really necessary for all the bait and fish in your livewell and bait tank? This much oxygen – http://oxyedge-chum.com/how-much-oxygen/
FACT: Live transport DO standard is 100% DO Saturation for all State, Federal and private fish hatcheries worldwide.
1 mature tournament fish or 1/2 lb. bait needs 100% DO Saturation or greater continuously during live transport whether transport is hours or days in captivity.
200 mature tournament fish or 600 lbs. of bait also needs 100% DO Saturation or greater continuously for hours of transport or days of captivity.
FACT: The dose of oxygen must be adjustable and regulated, easily changed and controlled by the fisherman. Any device that delivers a fixed preset dose of oxygen or low dose of oxygen may be as limited as any mechanical aerator or livewell pump in overcrowded summer livewell conditions.
OXYGEN GENERATORS- 3 TYPES
Oxygenator™ Oxygen Generator Electrolysis Type and U2 Livewell Chemicals
FishO2™ Oxygen Generator- PSA Type
Oxygen Generator – VSA Type
More about Oxygen Generators: http://oxyedge-chum.com/oxygen-generator/
OXYGEN INJECTION SYSTEMS
Oxygen Injection System-Adjustable Dose Oxygen Regulators
Oxygen Injection Systems – Fixed Dose Oxygen Pressure Valves
Chemical Oxygen System
Liquid Oxygen System (LOX) Systems
Liquid Stabilized Oxygen Systems
Medical Oxygen Regulators
Oxygenator™ Oxygen Generator Electrolysis Type
Aqua Innovations Oxygenator™, distributed by T-H Marine is an electrolysis device primarily sold and used in freshwater livewells and bait tanks. This small D/C battery operated electrical oxygen system requires (2) AA or 12 volt batteries. Some units require daily maintenance after each use, some units are advertised as maintenance free.
The Oxygenator™ is an Ozone (O3) generator that produced pure Ozone gas.
Lane Gergely, Sure-Life Products, Seguin, TX – Her professional opinion of the Oxygenator™ posted on Texas Fishing Forum 7/25/2007
“The Oxygenator generates highly unstable ozone that converts to the more stable oxygen.”
“Ozone reacts with various chlorides [salts] and metals to generate chlorine which is toxic to fish.” Electrolytes are salts – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolyte
“The ‘Oxygenator’ claims that their U2 Pro Formula is the ‘ONLY’ safe livewell treatment that can be used with their system is FALSE!!!!!!.”
“ANY LIVEWELL PRODUCT THAT CONTAINS A DECHLORINATOR [LIKE AMQUEL] can be used with their system, even it contains salt! Most if not all products on the market today contain dechlorinators and MANY contain ammonia removers! Their marketing is FALSE and MISLEADING!”
“Moral to this story, don’t be fooled by hype and slick marketing!”
Dechlorinators and ammonia removing chemicals are NOT FDA APPROVED for use on food fish or fish that will or may be caught eaten by humans i.e. post live release tournament bass, crappie, redfish, etc. These chemicals are commonly used to transport ornamental, aquarium fish and live bait not for human consumption. Eating fish that that have been contaminated, soaking in livewells contaminated with these with these chemicals for hours may be a health risk you and your family health.
SCIENTIFIC FACTS: Texas Parks & Wildlife Department Research: AquaInnovations Oxygenator™ – How Effective is It – by Fishery Biologist Randy Myers TPWD, Inland Fisheries Division, San Antonio, TX Publication 2-14-2012 http://www.slideshare.net/raminlandfish/the-oxygenator-how-effective-is-it No advertisement/fisherman testimonials/infomercial here. *Livewells did not contain any bait or fish consuming oxygen during TP&WD DO testing. Empty livewells with no fish DO NOT NEED ANY OXYGEN.
CAUTION: The gas space between a closed livewell lid and the water surface can become enriched with 3 different gases: oxygen, hydrogen, (an explosive gas like acetylene and propane) and pure 100% chlorine gas (an explosive gas) if the electrolyzed livewell water contains any salt or livewell products that contain salt. Incorporate any potential ignition source (electric wires, any live electricity) inside the livewell… EXPLOSION HAZARD / FIRE HAZARD.
Electrolysis breaks down fresh water molecules into pure hydrogen gas, pure oxygen gas and deadly hydroxyl ions. If the livewell water contains any salt, chlorine gas is always produced. Chlorine gas bubbles are visualized around the emitter as small greenish-yellow color gas bubbles (seen with back lighting). Hydrogen and oxygen bubbles are colorless.
In freshwater livewells, two thirds (2/3 or 66%) of the gas bubbles produced at the emitter are pure 100% hydrogen gas (an explosive gas) and only 1/3 or 33% of the bubbles you see are 100% pure oxygen. The Oxygen generator is designed, advertised and does produce [some] pure 100% oxygen by electrolysis of water.
The Aqua Innovations Oxygenator™ may not produce enough oxygen for all the fish or bait in the livewell, the total stocking density.
A FISH HEALTH FACT: Hydrogen gas combines with other elements (metabolic waste) in livewell water forming noxious and very toxic hydrogen sulfide that becomes corrosive when exposed to salt, (hydrogen chloride).
Oxygenator™ has no moving parts, makes no noise but older emitters require maintenance with special equipment after each use. Everything dies in the livewell if the oxygen life support system fails to produce and deliver enough pure oxygen. Summer conditions and overstocked livewells may exceed the Oxygenator™ capabilities to provide minimum safe DO saturation levels while the unit is working perfectly as advertised.
Water electrolysis produces some pure oxygen and twice as much pure hydrogen; 1:2 ratio respectively. The small volume of pure oxygen it does generate is neither regulated nor controlled by the fisherman. The small volume of oxygen generated is strictly limited, regulated and controlled by a thermometer that measures livewell water temperature.
The actual DO saturation produced with the Oxygenator™ has nothing to do with the DO saturation required to meet and sustain the minimal safe livewell oxygenation for 8-10 hours of intensive transport in overstocked summer livewell conditions.
THE SALES POINT – The Oxygenator™ generates 100% pure oxygen. Technically the Oxygenator™ does qualify as a livewell oxygen system. The Oxygenator™ costs as much as a livewell water pump or small air compressor, bubble stone and air tube.
IMPORTANT: Eliminate all unreal expectations and reduce any disappointments before your purchase.
Ask the Oxygenator™ salesman or boat salesman these 4 simple questions before you buy:
FACT: The Oxygenator™ does generates some pure 100% as advertised… Oxygenators™ deliver a fixed dose of oxygen.
1. Will the Oxygenator™ provide and ensure minimal safe livewell oxygenation (100% DO Saturation) for all the fish and live bait all day in the summer?
2. Will the Oxygenator™ provide and ensure minimal safe livewell oxygenation (100% DO Saturation) and keep all my tournament fish alive and safely oxygenated all day in the boat’s livewell?
3. Will the Oxygenator™ provide and ensure minimal safe livewell oxygenation (100% DO Saturation) and keep my live bait alive and healthy in my bait tank all day in a livewell or bait tank?
4. Is it necessary to use livewell aerators, run water pumps, spray bars in conjunction with the Oxygenator™ in summer livewells?
Livewell oxygen systems must produce, maintain and sustain minimal continuous dissolved oxygen saturations (100% – 175% DO saturation) in a bass boat livewell, tournament weigh-in holding tank, release boat transport tanks containing a heavy limit, (many limits of tournament bass are15-30 lbs. fish or 400 lbs. of live fish) all day long during July/August tournaments.
ELECTRICAL CURRENT may cause physiological and psychological stress impact of transporting live bait and tournament gamefish in water that’s actively being exposed to sustained low electrical current (electrolysis) in water unknown, out of sight and out of mind.
NEGATIVE AFFECTS OF ELECTROLYSIS is well known by fishermen… how electrolysis breaks down metal and electrical components on boats, motors and boat trailers. Why zinc anodes are absolutely necessary to counteract the negative effects of electrolysis.
The hallmark selling point is: “The Oxygenator ™… it makes 100% pure oxygen,” Period. But, will the Oxygenator™ really make enough oxygen to sustain an overcrowded livewell full of tournament fish or live bait all day in the summer is something sellers will not mentioned or discuss with you.
If the generator fails to produce and or sustain the minimal safe Dissolved Oxygen Saturation all day for all the catch, your gamefish and bait may die while the generator is making 100% oxygen, operating perfectly as advertised. Like when your mechanical aerator or livewell water pump is working perfectly, humming away while the tournament fish or bait are suffocating and dying in your summer livewell while you are watching.
Know the facts and limitations about the Oxygenator™. Expect very limited pure oxygen production and low dissolved oxygen (DO) saturations in livewells full of game fish and live bait every summer. Why? Because the oxygen output is controlled and cycled on and off strictly by livewell water temperature. When the unit is new and functioning correctly in late fall, winter, early spring weather, the small volume of 100% oxygen may satisfy the biological oxygen demand for a fish or a few live baits when environmental water temperature is 40 F – 65 F.
FACT: The amount of oxygen tournament fish and live bait fish need is based on the biological demand of all the fish in captivity, collectively. The amount of oxygen needed has nothing to do with a livewell’s or bait tank’s water volume.
Failure to generate enough DO is a seasonal problem like aeration, exhibiting every summer when the surface water temperature reaches 75 F – 90 F. Like all mechanical aeration and water pumps, you cannot ensure minimal safe livewell DO saturation with air or the Oxygenator™ in heavily stocked livewells. Water pumps only pump water and air pumps only pump air… air and water are not oxygen.
The livewell water temperature sensor (the brain of the electrolyzer is a thermometer) cycles the unit on and off intermittently. The amount of oxygen that’s generated is strictly controlled by livewell water temperature not by the oxygen demand and needs of the fish or live bait inside the livewell.
Add ice to cool the water and the unit cycles less generating less oxygen whether the well contains (1) three pound fish, (100 five pound fish or (15) fifteen pounds of live baitfish. Unlike standard professional fish transporters’ dissolved oxygen standards for transport DO protocols, livewell stocking densities are not a consideration for oxygen production and is of no concern with the Oxygenator™. That major design feature, a real plus to save electricity and battery power, can be absolutely deadly in the summer.
You cannot increase the volume of 100% oxygen the unit produces and delivers which exposes an extremely limiting DO water quality factor like you’ve experience with mechanical aeration, insufficient safe oxygenation.
DISSOLVED OXYGEN SATURATION RATE: Oxygenator™ literature claims to generate 80% DO saturation in 20 minutes in freshwater livewells, [no fish or bait in livewell water consuming oxygen, livewell stocking density -0-.]. This sounds great, right?
How do you think 80% DO Saturation in 20 minutes with an Oxygenator™ squares with any standard aerator, spray bar, Mr.Bubbles air pump or livewell water pump?
FACT: With no fish or bait in the livewell [livewell stocking density 0] and the standard mechanical aerators livewell pump running perfectly, 80% DO saturations or greater are easily reached within several minutes in summer livewell water. Even Mr. and Ms. Bubbles air pumps and bubblers can and will achieve 80% DO saturation under the same conditions in a few minutes in livewell water devoid of live bait and fish.
U2 LIVEWELL ADDITIVE
Oxygenator™ U2 instructions boldly state
DO NOT USE THIS DEVICE IN SALTWATER LIVEWELLS OR BAIT TANKS and DO NOT USE SALT OR ANY LIVEWELL CHEMICALS or LIVEWELL WATER CONDITIONERS THAT CONTAIN SALT.
Most livewell additives and chemicals contain salt, electrolytes that aid osmoregulation.
U2 and Salt Water U2 livewell additives are the only additives recommended for safe use with the Oxygenator™ by the manufacture. U2 literature states the formulation contains essential electrolytes.
“Electrolyte solutions are normally formed when a physiological salt is dissolved into a solvent (water).”
What are the “essential electrolytes in livewell chemicals and formulations? Combinations of primary ions compose physiological electrolytes. Ions of Sodium (Na+), Chloride (Cl−), Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca2+), magnesium Mg2+), Hydrogen Phosphate (HPO42−), and Hydrogen Carbonate (HCO3−). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolyte
Before you turn on an Oxygenator™ it is essential that you KNOW beyond any doubt whether the livewell chemical or additive you added to your livewell water contains any salt compounds.
If you are ever in doubt if any livewell additive contains salt, taste it. If you detect a salty taste, the formulation probably contains salt… Don’t turn-on your Oxygenator™.
CAUTION: Many livewell chemical manufacturers claim their fish saver livewell formulations and chemicals consist of “food grade” ingredients and may be used on food fish. Many of these products are clearly not FDA approved for use on food fish for human consumption and should never be used on tournament gamefish that are released alive after the tournament. Tournament catch and release gamefish are used for food fish for many fishermen, their wives and children.
Upon your request, any ethical livewell chemical manufacture should provide a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or complete list of formulation ingredients upon your request.
All the ingredients in the MSDS should be FDA approved for use on food fish for human consumption. It’s a public health issue and ethical statement regarding any concern for fellow fishermen and families that may catch and eat that fish you released yesterday after the tournament – The fish that you soaked 7-8 hours in the chemical bath in your livewell.
FishO2™ Oxygen Generator PSA Type
FishO2™ is a PSA (pressure swing absorption) oxygen generator. It requires electricity, D/C batteries. It is very similar to PSA medical oxygen generators sold and leased by Durable Medical Equipment companies and Home Health Agencies. This noisy little unit will produce some oxygen too. The dose, volume and concentration of oxygen you may need is NOT adjustable; you have no choice here. The machine is either off or on as long as your battery lasts.
Hot gases: PSA generators entrain ambient air at ambient air temperatures. Air temperature can exceed 100 F in the summer. Inside the unit ambient gas temperature is elevated even higher because the electric motor/air compressor inside the sealed housing runs continuously producing mechanical heat. Because the gas delivered to livewell water is hotter than ambient air temperature, expect your livewell water to be really HOT, always hotter than air temperature.
An encased 12 volt electrical air compressor/motor pumps room air through canisters of packed hygroscopic (the tendency of a material to absorb water and having the characteristic of drawing moisture from the atmosphere) Zeolite sieve beads. New and dry Zeolite beads can filter out some nitrogen and deliver near 87% oxygen in limited small volumes only when the unit is brand new. PSA generators deliver various concentrations of mixed gases; they do not deliver pure oxygen. When Zeolite sieve becomes saturated with water vapor, delivery oxygen concentration falls precipitously, sieve beds stop-up, gas flow occludes and maintenance is required. Zeolite canisters must be replaced or the Zeolite must be taken out of the canister and regenerated.
The volume and concentration of oxygen delivered to the livewell is limited and cannot be controlled by the fisherman.
Molecular filtering efficiency and outlet oxygen concentrations degrade rapidly when used on boats, specifically when used in warm high relative humidity environments.
FishO2™ does not come with an air dryer on the inlet side of the air compressor which is a problem when used on the water. Inline air dryers eliminate relative humidity problems and extend the life span of sieve beads hundreds of hours. Air dryers reduce incidents of catastrophic system failure.
Factory maintenance is required when FishO2™ is not working properly. Expensive testing and diagnostic equipment is commonplace at the factory.
Fishermen do not need expensive oxygen testing equipment to know if a problem in the livewell is real. The bait or mature tournament fish in the livewell “speak in terms of behavior” to the fisherman, some dead some dying. When water quality is great, bait should behave and look like guppies in your 10 gallon square home aquarium; no foamy dirty water that stinks.
Whenever the dissolved oxygen concentration is insufficient, unsafe and suffocation begins, the bait behaves like it’s in an aerated livewell or bait tank at 10 AM in July / August… floating dead, piping at the surface, stacking in corners, red-nosed, sloppy, lethargic, dying, dead foam on livewell water surface, water stinks… you know the signs. Watch your bait or tournament gamefish in the livewell. Bait and fish will behave exactly like they did in summer in your aerated livewell when the oxygen levels are low: sickly, red-nose, red belly, dying and dead when the generator generating enough oxygen, the occupants are suffocating in the livewell.
This PSA generator has a very low outlet pressure which can be problematic when used with air stones and small-bore oxygen tubing and will not work at all with many bubble stones. Air stones are ineffective because of low outlet pressure.
Be aware of this problem when using any PSA oxygen generator that delivers oxygen concentrations less than 100% pure (90% oxygen, 10% air/nitrogen), 10% nitrogen under pressure is the problem gas. Entraining PSA generated mixed gases through a livewell water pump venturi device will result in nitrogen supersaturation. Nitrogen pressurized (greater than barometric pressures) through a venturi device can cause a very serious fish health problems. If your livewell goal is to improving fish health and survival in your summer livewell water… nitrogen gas supersaturation is the cause of tissue emphysema, gas bubble disease, bends, additional livewell stress must be expected with PSA oxygen generators when the PSA generator gas is delivered into livewell water with water pump/venturi devices.
FishO2™ PSA generators have many small delicate moving parts: valves, switches, constant noise, constant heat and constant vibration. The air compressor motor runs continuously, the compressor motor does not cycle on and off.
PSA generators have internal switching valves that dump nitrogen and deliver oxygen intermittently to different internal canisters. When working correctly, it may sound like the generator is turning on and off and may give you a false impression of conserving electricity between cycles.
Nitrogen is filtered from the air, dumped and returned to the atmosphere; oxygen is conserved in a small internal gas reservoir then pumped to the livewell at very, very low pressures. Giant pore air stones or venturi devises are recommended by the manufacturer because of the low PSA generator outlet pressure and the fisherman’s inability to adjust the generators gas flow.
FishO2™ is a low pressure oxygen system capable of producing oxygen enrichment. Oxygen gas safety is often discounted as not important, or worse, oxygen safety is never mentioned at all.
CAUTION-FIRE SAFETY: Oxygen enrichment is oxygen enrichment regardless of the source of oxygen, there are safety issues that must be considered. It makes no difference whether the oxygen comes from an Oxygenator™ PSA generator, pressurized oxygen cylinder or liquid oxygen cylinder; the “Rules of the Oxygen Road” apply. Some sales people recommend entraining PSA generated oxygen into the intake side of a bilge pump or livewell pump located inside or outside the livewell. FIRE HAZARD
CAUTION-FIRE SAFETY: Water pumps, Bilge Pumps and Oxygen: Rule, Inc., Jabsco, Xylem, Atwell, Johnson, Dannco and other livewell / bilge pump manufacturers DO NOT recommend entraining oxygen enriched gas through venturi devices located up stream directly into their pumps.
CAUTION-FIRE SAFETY: Their pumps are ignition protected to ISO 8846 for use in fuel/air environments like boat bilges. None are ignition protected nor certified for use with pure oxygen or oxygen enriched environments. FIRE HAZARD
Use in environments with high relative humidity, on boats: When PSA generators are used in high relative humidity environments, electrical switches, pneumatic valves and clogged sieve beads are problematic, common and require maintenance, especially when used in high humidity saltwater environments.
Expect problems: Additional livewell heat from hot gas, noise, vibration, limited /unstable doses, gas volumes and concentrations, low gas delivery pressures, low variable gas flows and the potential for catastrophic internal electrical or gas plumbing failure is high. Expect additional livewell problems, failures and repair cost.
The Hidden Cost of PSA Oxygen Generators: Always ask the salesman about the all the hidden cost of PSA generator operation including required maintenance, repair and return shipping to the manufacturer or dealer. This unit must be returned to T-H Marine for all maintenance, repair and adjustments. Before you purchase a PSA oxygen generator, find out how much it will cost you to replace or rebuild the air compressor, electrical switches or to replace Zeolite sieve beds. This unit cannot be repaired on the boat. If you open the unit housing your warranty is VOID. Cost $750.00
Oxygen Generator – VSA Type
Vacuum Swing Adsorption VSA oxygen generators are used to purify air, manufacture oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen gas. VSA technology plays an increasingly important role in the commercial production of oxygen.
VSA oxygen generators differs from Pressure Swing adsorption (PSA generators) because it operates at near-ambient temperatures and pressures. The simplicity of the VSA process may allow for greater efficiency and cost savings, and less maintenance than PSA systems. Oxygen cost less to produce than using PSA generators.
WHY? The use of a vacuum step provides a superior regeneration of the molecular sieve bed, thus extending sieve life. Overall, the VSA adsorber vessel has much longer service life than two-bed PSA vessels, which commonly need re-packing of sieve material every 3–5 years.
As a result, power savings of as much as 50% can be achieved, when compared to the more simple PSA systems. However, VPSA systems typically have comparable or better power efficiencies. Maintenance issues typically associated with two-bed PSA systems are greatly reduced with VSA technology. Lower operating pressures also eliminate any water condensate.
IMPORTANT – VSA oxygen generators are not as susceptible to humid environments as PSA systems, while PSA feed compressors require water removal hardware [dehumidifiers], and oil-removal hardware if an oil-lubricated compressor is used.
The design simplicity and efficiency that VSA technology offers has generated products that are more energy- and cost-efficient than traditional gas separation units like PSA oxygen generators.
Oxygen-Injection System-Adjustable Dose Oxygen Regulators
The Oxygen Edge™ is the original live bait supercharger since 1993. The first small efficient portable livewell oxygen-injection systems used by sport fishermen, commercial fishermen and the tropical fish industry for oxygenating livewells and live haul tanks. Professional Customer Service is exemplary and ongoing.
The Edge delivers the precise dose of pure 100% oxygen continuously during transports. The fisherman controls the dose of oxygen. The precision gas regulator ensures a wide range of doses that may be increased or decreased as your bait or tournament fish load (stocking density) increases or decreases ensuring minimal oxygen waste reducing and controlling your cost of operation.
This turn-on-and-forget oxygen-injection system adapts to all saltwater and freshwater livewells and bait tanks. It will deliver the correct dose of oxygen continuously to safely satisfy the total oxygen demand in overcrowded livewells in hot summer conditions. No ice is needed to cool livewell water with the Edge. It’s engineered and designed to deliver and maintain a supercharging dose of oxygen preventing any chance of livewell hypoxia for Catch & Release tournament fish and all live bait under the harshest summer conditions. Use in a closed livewell system for best results.
Buy and use the same compressed welding oxygen that your State and Federal fish hatcheries use when they oxygenate live fish and baitfish during transports.
The Oxygen Edge™ adjustable dose regulator utilizes inexpensive compressed welding oxygen, delivered with a specially designed Oxygen Edge™ solid brass regulator that is safe (not a repackaged medical oxygen regulator), nickel plated internally and externally, back pressure compensated, CGA E-4 Ignition Test Certified (a major safety issue) and a CGA 540 hand wheel connector. No wrenches are required to connect/disconnect the regulator to a non disposable 540 CGA oxygen cylinder valve
The Edge makes no noise and has no moving parts thus ensurimg dependability with minimal maintenance. The delivered dose of oxygen is adjustable and variable depending on the job… the specie being transported, the livewell stocking density and hours of transport and captivity.
The correct dose of oxygen needed and delivered is based solely on the total biological oxygen demand plus the livewell stocking density. The correct dose of pure oxygen you need is 100% dependent upon the total weight of the biomass in the livewell. You determine and control the dose of oxygen needed. Your ability to control the correct dose of oxygen is the most important water quality parameter that is essential for any live bait or gamefish transport.
OE cylinder refills cost $0.15 – $0.75, operates continuously 47–189 hours and are dependable and quiet.
Oxygen-Injection Systems – Fixed Dose Oxygen Pressure Valves
Texas Parks & Wildlife Department oxygen injection system and several Fish-Flo2 oxygen systems incorporate fixed flow, fixed dose oxygen regulators or pressure valves. The pressure valve delivers 1 specific fixed dose of oxygen. The dose of oxygen cannot be adjusted or changed by the fisherman as the stocking density increases or decreased. http://www.slideshare.net/raminlandfish/livewell-oxygen-injection-8773301
Fish-Flo2 also sells 2 oxygen systems that use fixed flow pressure regulating valves, a Disposable Cylinder System, RC Tournament Series mdl. FFOSDIS-FIXED and a Non-Disposable Cylinder System, DC Tournament Series, mdl. FFOSS540-FIXED. http://fishflo2.com/products.htm
Fixed dose oxygen pressure valves or regulators have very limited oxygen delivery capabilities which may directly impact fish and live bait health during transports. They are not designed for flexibility nor accommodate wide stocking densities. They may waste oxygen with small stocking densities or fail to deliver enough oxygen to satisfy greater stocking densities insuring hypoxic events.
Fixed dose of oxygen pressure valves are not adjustable regardless of the increasing oxygen demand required by more fish or bait in the livewell. The stocking densities in livewells may change as fish and live bait are added, but the dose of oxygen cannot be changed to accommodate overstocking.
Fixed dose high pressure reducing devices deliver a fixed dose of oxygen which may waste oxygen for low stocking densities or not provide enough oxygen for high stocking densities or overstocked livewells. Provided you stay within a narrow stocking density range in your livewell (not overstocked or under stocked), a pressure valve may deliver the correct dose of oxygen for that specific stocking density providing safe DO saturation if there is no wasted oxygen and livewell hypoxia is nonexistent provided you do not exceed a specific stocking density for the preset dose of oxygen delivered. The captive biomass must not increase or decrease but remain static.
Minimal safe oxygenation for stocked and overstocked livewells during transport is 100% – 175% DO saturation. This high DO saturation must be sustained continuously whether the livewell contains 1 five lb fish or 500 lbs of fish in a release boat livewell. More fish require more oxygen, not more air or larger water pumps.
Oxygenation of Livewells to Improve Survival of Tournament-Caught Bass
By Fishery by Biologist Randy Myers and Jason Driscoll
TPWP, Inland Fisheries Division, San Antonio, TX Publication 6/2011
Oxygen Injection Systems
By Fishery Biologist Randy Myers 6/2011
TPWD, Inland Fisheries Division, San Antonio, TX Publication
Understand the capabilities and limitations of your oxygen system and you will never be surprised or disappointed with your equipment. Expect surprises and disappointments in the summer when you don’t understand oxygen equipment limitations.
Chemical Oxygen Systems
Pebble-Halverson, Inc. makes O-Tabs (bait tank oxygen tablets), a chemical composition of strontium peroxide, calcium monophophate, calcium sulfate, and manganese dioxide, no moving parts or noise here and a limited amount of pure oxygen is produced. The O-TAB business has run continually since 1939.
The small dose of oxygen delivered is short lived, limited and cannot be adjusted when the livewell stocking density and biological oxygen demand increases or decreases.
10% Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Peroxide is a Killer: O-Tabs react with water releasing a limited amount of pure oxygen, 10% carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen Peroxide breaks down producing water and oxygen concentrations greater than air.
Carbon dioxide dissolves in water producing carbonic acid and producing acid pH, compromising livewell water quality quickly. Hydrogen peroxide ( a potent oxidizer) can chemically burn gill tissue, eyes and skin compromising fish health and increasing mortality. Cost is cheap but you may pay a high price.
Supa Oxygen Tabs
Oxygenating Tablets – Tablets of potassium chlorate which when placed in water dissolve and slowly release oxygen into the water.
Liquid Oxygen System (LOX) Systems
Liquid oxygen is cold (-273 F.); don’t get it on you. It burns quick like steam. LOX systems are commonly used by large hospitals, commercial fish farmers, State and Federal fish hatcheries to transport millions of pounds of live fish across the country and around the world every year. Cold liquid oxygen is warmed, converted to a gas and finally dissolved in transport water at various concentrations in multipliable haul tanks.
LOX is used extensively to transport large volumes of live fish. LOX is also used in intensive closed system aquaculture (fish farming). The dose of oxygen delivered is adjustable and accommodates wide ranges of stocking large densities. LOX systems are expensive to set up, liquid oxygen costs are relatively inexpensive compared to compressed oxygen. LOX systems are very dependable and quiet. Cost $2,000.00
Stabilized Oxygen Systems
Liquid stabilized oxygen (room temperature) is a food supplement that may be purchased at health food stores and used in livewell water. The concentration of dissolved oxygen delivered may vary considerably depending upon the initial DO concentration, the shelf life and the material the container is made of, plastic or glass. How the container is sealed is critical as oxygen can leach through and react with many types of plastic bottle materials. Cost $40.00 per quart.
OXYGEN SYSTEMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUALLY
Aeration Systems are used to Ventilate Livewell Transport Water – Not To Oxygenate Livewell Water: The primary purpose of mechanical aeration systems used in livewells is to ventilate livewell water, flush out metabolic toxins (off-gas dissolved carbon dioxide and ammonia).
Air is mostly nitrogen gas with a little dab of oxygen in it, its 4/5 nitrogen by volume. Livewell water pumps pump water that has been exposed to air. Air looks like oxygen, taste like oxygen and smells like oxygen. Both gases make clear bubbles in livewell water.
Aeration devices pump air (lots of air). Many fishermen confuse air with oxygen. High volume water pumps flush water through livewells in vast quantities, some have particulate water filtering systems built in-line that take out the larger chunks, scales and feces.
Mechanical aeration is never used to ensure minimal safe oxygenation for professional live fish and live bait transport.
Metabolic toxins are easily managed with a couple of daily livewell water exchanges.
Mechanical aeration systems include livewell water pumps, air pumps with bubble stones, scoops, spray bars, air venturies and agitators. Aerators are equivalent to treating a serious hypoxia event with an electric fan.
Mechanical aeration systems in livewells use electric motors, they’re noisy, create additional heat, need electrical DC battery power and cause much angst and disappointment in summer livewells for many fishermen hoping air may turn into oxygen and save the bait or tournament fish.
Air pumps blow ambient air at ambient pressure and temperature through air tubing attached to a gas diffuser. Air bubbles aerate livewell water, off-gassing dissolved CO2 and ammonia gas. All the aeration modifications in the world won’t change anything; aeration is aeration and that’s all there is.
More air (aeration) or bigger water pumps are certainly not the treatment of choice to correct livewell with low-no oxygen in the summer, contrary to popular fisherman testimonials, sales literature, C&R Tournament Directors and outdoor writers’ beliefs.
Electro-mechanical aerators are always prone to malfunction and failure at times when you need them most. Livewell pump fails, battery runs out of juice, electric switch fails, electric motor fails, motor bearings fail… everything in a summer livewell is either dying or dead. There is no ventilation in the livewell.
Your costs for Aeration: Replacing pumps, switches, batteries, air pumps is not free – air aeration is not free. The cost of operation can be quite expensive. Look in the cockpit of a $40,000 bass boat and ask the salesman how much all that livewell stuff adds to the drive out price of the boat. Many fishermen always have several spare pumps on the boat anticipating pump failure. Most of that stuff in the cockpit is all about the livewell.
“Tuna Tubes” and “Striper Tubes” (a live fish holding tube akin to an aerated livewell) are another type of livewell and mechanical aeration water pump device with the same serious dissolved oxygen limitations every summer. Fish tubes may work a little better in cold winter months, but often fail to provide minimal safe oxygenation in summer conditions.
Expect high mortality and morbidity every summer with fish tubes. Fish simply suffocate in the tube every summer while hundreds of gallons per hour of warm environmental water is pumped through the tube and the fish’s gills. Bigger water pumps won’t correct the low oxygen problem with tubes.
CAUTION: Excessive aeration can cause dissolved nitrogen supersaturation. That can cause gas bubble disease, gas embolism, pop-eye and tissue emphysema. Air supersaturation can cause far more harm to live captive fish and tournament gamefish in livewells than benefits. Air leaks and air entrainment venturies on the inlet side of livewell water pumps is a primary cause of nitrogen supersaturation. When you see millions of tiny micro bubbles of air coming out of the outlet side of a livewell pump into livewell water, expect gas bubble disease, etc.
Livewell and Bait Tank Oxygen Systems Summary
Livewell oxygen systems are life support systems unlike livewell mechanical aeration systems. 100% DO saturation or greater is the gold standard for State and Federal fish hatchery live fish transports. These agencies use compressed welding oxygen and LOX exclusively to ensure minimal safe oxygenation of live transport water (livewell water).
Livewell oxygen systems must be capable of delivering a wide range of oxygen doses that can be easily adjusted or changed as your bait load or number of mature tournament gamefish (stocking density) increases and decreases during the day.
It makes no difference if there is 1 fish or 1,000 fish being transported in the livewell. Sustained 100% DO saturation or greater is the minimal requirement anytime live baitfish and tournament gamefish are being transported any time of the year in a tournament boat livewell, live release haul tank or weigh-in holding tank.
Dissolved oxygen saturations must always be tested / measured in a livewell or bait tank containing maximum stocking densities of live bait fish, shrimp or full limits of tournament gamefish. Testing the DO saturation in livewell water void of live bait or fish is worthless, meaningless without a maximum stocking density of fish or live bait in the livewell water consuming oxygen at the time of the test. A weigh-in fish bag contains plenty of dissolved oxygen when the bag contains fresh water and no fish.
Different brands of oxygen systems deliver different doses and concentrations of oxygen. Brands that only deliver a fixed preset dose of oxygen is a serious limitation for any life support system. More versatile adjustable dose oxygen systems can deliver a wide range of oxygen doses, volumes and oxygen concentrations which is a major consideration as stocking densities change. The dose of oxygen must be correct and precise.
A fixed dose, limited dose “oxygen system” may or may not deliver enough oxygen for the total biomass of fish in the livewell resulting in suffocation and unusual high livewell mortality. Choose your “oxygen system” carefully because the type and brand of oxygenating system you choose may or may not be any better than your standard boat or bait tank aeration system or livewell water pump which is disappointing you.
Oxygen systems must be safe, dependable and easily adjust doses as your livewell stocking density increases and decreases during the day.
The oxygen system you choose must be secured safely on your boat and capable of delivering sufficient volumes and concentrations of pure oxygen. The oxygen must be safe and efficiently dissolved into livewell water. Oxygen dissolves poorly in water.
Changes in stocking density, water temperature, salinity, barometric pressure, fish or bait species, fish or bait age, day or night usage and total transport time or total time in captivity all affect the amount of oxygen required for a safe healthy trip in your livewell or bait tank.
Different types of oxygen systems produce oxygen in various ways. Some oxygenating devices can be superior to aeration systems in the summer provided they are capable of producing and delivering enough oxygen continuously in high concentrations to satisfy all the bait and fish in the livewell. Other oxygen systems may cause more harm to bait and fish than any aeration system if they are only capable of delivering small doses of oxygen in fixed amounts.
Pure oxygen is a lifesaver: Transporting and using oxygen safely and effectively is more high-tech than simply flipping a switch on an electric water pump, air compressor, aerator, PSA oxygen generator or simply turning on the compressed oxygen valve.
Using oxygen and oxygen equipment safely requires a functional knowledge and faithful practice of the “Rules of the Oxygen Road.” Understanding the gas and understand the limitations of your equipment is necessary in order to be safe and get your job done successfully with minimal dead bait disappointments and failures.
The USCG regulates all transport and storage of high pressure oxygen cylinders, SCUBA (air and mixed gases) and helium cylinders on vessels.
High pressure click style medical oxygen regulators are patented, engineered, designed and manufactured to patent specifications specifically for medical use prescribed by physicians. These medical regulators are used in clean controlled medical environments, patient homes, medical clinics, hospitals, EMT vehicles, doctors offices and fire trucks by trained personnel trained authorized to use and handle oxygen equipment and oxygen safely. These medical regulators are illegally misbranded and relabeled as commercial fish oxygen system regulators, and they are not manufactured or approved for over the counter purchase or use by fishermen in fishing environments.
Every time oxygen equipment is abused and misused by fishermen with no training in oxygen safety on unclean boats; it’s dangerous to not only the boat captain, crew and other fishermen on the boat, but hazardous to all. Those who intentionally or ignorantly disregard or reject the importance of oxygen gas safety or the Rules of the Oxygen Road or USCG regulations and oxygen safety codes flirt with danger. FIRE HAZARDS
Safety, transport, storage, handling and the administration of oxygen requires specific applications learned through specific instructions, training, knowledge and application about oxygen and oxygen delivery equipment.
Click style medical oxygen regulator bodies have colored aluminum alloy bodies or shiny chrome alloy plating. The dose of oxygen is always regulated in fractions of liters per minute or liters per minute (LPM). Medical oxygen cylinders have ID labels on the cylinders (OXYGEN, USP) and are usually made of aluminum or steel painted dark green or white.
MEDICAL OXYGEN REGULATORS
The sale and rental of click style medical oxygen equipment and medical oxygen requires a written doctor’s prescription. Prescription click style medical regulators are commonly illegally misbranded, repackaged, relabeled and sold illegally over the counter to fishermen as commercial fishing regulators without a written doctor’s prescription.
Without a written doctor’s prescription, buying medical oxygen equipment from Durable Medical Equipment (DME) companies, fishing tackle shops or fishing guides is illegal. Abusing and misusing medical oxygen equipment is common and dangerous.
Special Fraud Alert From the Office of Inspector General: “Physician Liability for Certifications in the Provision of Medical Equipment and Supplies”
Black Market Illegal Click Style Medical Oxygen Regulators are sold by Durable Medical Equipment Companies (DME): Cost $15-$45
How to identify repackaged, relabeled medical oxygen regulators sold as commercial oxygen regulators and fishing oxygen regulators. SEE – Homemade Oxygen Systems http://oxyedge-chum.com/homemade-oxygen-systems/